File:  [DragonFly] / src / release / doc / en_US.ISO8859-1 / readme / Attic / article.sgml
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    1: <!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//DTD DocBook V4.1-Based Extension//EN" [
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   13: 
   14: <article>
   15:   <articleinfo>
   16:     <title>&os; &release.current; README</title>
   17: 
   18:     <corpauthor>The &os; Project</corpauthor>
   19: 
   20:     <pubdate>$FreeBSD: src/release/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/readme/article.sgml,v 1.1.2.17 2003/05/01 15:09:53 trhodes Exp $</pubdate>
   21:     <pubdate>$DragonFly: src/release/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/readme/article.sgml,v 1.2 2003/06/17 04:27:19 dillon Exp $</pubdate>
   22: 
   23:     <copyright>
   24:       <year>2000</year>
   25:       <year>2001</year>
   26:       <year>2002</year>
   27:       <year>2003</year>
   28:       <holder role="mailto:doc@FreeBSD.org">The FreeBSD Documentation Project</holder>
   29:     </copyright>
   30:   </articleinfo>
   31: 
   32:   <abstract>
   33:     <para>This document gives a brief introduction to &os;
   34:       &release.current;.  It includes some information on how to
   35:       obtain &os;, a listing of various ways to contact the &os;
   36:       Project, and pointers to some other sources of
   37:       information.</para>
   38:   </abstract>
   39: 
   40:   <sect1>
   41:     <title>Introduction</title>
   42: 
   43:     <para>This distribution is a &release.type; of &os;
   44:       &release.current;, the latest point along the &release.branch;
   45:       branch.</para>
   46: 
   47:     <sect2>
   48:       <title>About &os;</title>
   49: 
   50:       <para>&os; is an operating system based on 4.4 BSD Lite for
   51: 	Intel, AMD, Cyrix or NexGen <quote>x86</quote> based PC
   52: 	hardware and Compaq (formerly DEC) Alpha computers.  Versions
   53: 	for the IA64, PowerPC, and Sparc64 architectures are currently
   54: 	under development as well.  &os; works with a wide variety of
   55: 	peripherals and configurations and can be used for everything
   56: 	from software development to games to Internet Service
   57: 	Provision.</para>
   58: 
   59:       <para>This release of &os; contains everything you need to run
   60: 	such a system, including full source code for the kernel and
   61: 	all utilities in the base distribution.  With the source
   62: 	distribution installed, you can literally recompile the entire
   63: 	system from scratch with one command, making it ideal for
   64: 	students, researchers, or users who simply want to see how it
   65: 	all works.</para>
   66: 
   67:       <para>A large collection of third-party ported software (the
   68: 	<quote>Ports Collection</quote>) is also provided to make it
   69: 	easy to obtain and install all your favorite traditional UNIX
   70: 	utilities for &os;.  Each <quote>port</quote> consists of a
   71: 	set of scripts to retrieve, configure, build, and install a
   72: 	piece of software, with a single command.  Over &os.numports;
   73: 	ports, from editors to programming languages to graphical
   74: 	applications, make &os; a powerful and comprehensive operating
   75: 	environment that extends far beyond what's provided by many
   76: 	commercial versions of UNIX.  Most ports are also available as
   77: 	pre-compiled <quote>packages</quote>, which can be quickly
   78: 	installed from the installation program.</para>
   79:     </sect2>
   80: 
   81:     <sect2>
   82:       <title>Target Audience</title>
   83: 
   84: <![ %release.type.snapshot; [
   85: 
   86:       <para>This &release.type; is aimed primarily at early adopters
   87: 	and various other users who want to get involved with the
   88: 	ongoing development of &os;.  While the &os; development team
   89: 	tries its best to ensure that each &release.type; works as
   90: 	advertised, &release.branch; is very much a
   91: 	work-in-progress.</para>
   92: 
   93:       <para>The basic requirements for using this &release.type; are
   94: 	technical proficiency with &os; and an understanding of the
   95: 	ongoing development process of &os; &release.branch; (as
   96: 	discussed on the &a.stable;).</para>
   97: 
   98:       <para>For those more interested in doing business with &os; than
   99: 	in experimenting with new &os; technology, formal releases
  100: 	(such as &release.prev;) are frequently more appropriate.
  101: 	Releases undergo a period of testing and quality assurance
  102: 	checking to ensure high reliability and dependability.</para>
  103: 
  104: ]]>
  105: 
  106: <![ %release.type.release; [
  107: 
  108:       <para>This &release.type; of &os; is suitable for all users.  It
  109: 	has undergone a period of testing and quality assurance
  110: 	checking to ensure the highest reliability and
  111: 	dependability.</para>
  112: 
  113: ]]>
  114: 
  115:     </sect2>
  116:   </sect1>
  117: 
  118:   <sect1>
  119:     <title>Obtaining &os;</title>
  120: 
  121:     <para>&os; may be obtained in a variety of ways.  This section
  122:       focuses on those ways that are primarily useful for obtaining a
  123:       complete &os; distribution, rather than updating an existing
  124:       installation.</para>
  125: 
  126:     <sect2>
  127:       <title>CDROM and DVD</title>
  128: 
  129:       <para>&os; -RELEASE distributions may be ordered on CDROM or DVD
  130: 	from several publishers.  This is frequently the most
  131: 	convenient way to obtain &os; for new installations, as it
  132: 	provides a convenient way to quickly reinstall the system if
  133: 	necessary.  Some distributions include some of the optional,
  134: 	precompiled <quote>packages</quote> from the &os; Ports
  135: 	Collection.</para>
  136: 
  137:       <para>A list of the CDROM and DVD publishers known to the
  138: 	project are listed in the <ulink
  139: 	url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mirrors.html"><quote>Obtaining
  140: 	FreeBSD</quote></ulink> appendix to the Handbook.</para>
  141:     </sect2>
  142: 
  143:     <sect2>
  144:       <title>FTP</title>
  145: 
  146:       <para>You can use FTP to retrieve &os; and any or all of its
  147: 	optional packages from <ulink
  148: 	url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/"></ulink>, which is the official
  149: 	&os; release site, or any of its
  150: 	<quote>mirrors</quote>.</para>
  151: 
  152:       <para>Lists of locations that mirror &os; can be found in the
  153: 	<ulink
  154: 	url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mirrors-ftp.html">FTP
  155: 	Sites</ulink> section of the Handbook, or on the <ulink
  156: 	url="http://www.freebsdmirrors.org/"></ulink> Web pages.
  157: 	Finding a close (in networking terms) mirror from which to
  158: 	download the distribution is highly recommended.</para>
  159: 
  160:       <para>Additional mirror sites are always welcome.  Contact
  161: 	<email>freebsd-admin@FreeBSD.org</email> for more details on
  162: 	becoming an official mirror site.</para>
  163: 
  164:       <para>Mirrors generally contain the floppy disk images necessary
  165: 	to begin an installation, as well as the distribution files
  166: 	needed for the install process itself.  Many mirrors also
  167: 	contain the ISO images necessary to create a CDROM of
  168: 	a &os; release.</para>
  169: 
  170:     </sect2>
  171:   </sect1>
  172: 
  173:   <sect1 id="contacting">
  174:     <title>Contacting the &os; Project</title>
  175: 
  176:     <sect2>
  177:       <title>Email and Mailing Lists</title>
  178: 
  179:       <para>For any questions or general technical support issues,
  180: 	please send mail to the &a.questions;.</para>
  181: 
  182:       <para>If you are tracking the -STABLE development efforts, you
  183: 	<emphasis>must</emphasis> join the &a.stable;, in order to
  184: 	keep abreast of recent developments and changes that may
  185: 	affect the way you use and maintain the system.</para>
  186: 
  187:       <para>Being a largely-volunteer effort, the &os;
  188: 	Project is always happy to have extra hands willing to help&mdash;there are already far more desired enhancements than
  189: 	there is time to implement them.  To contact the developers on
  190: 	technical matters, or with offers of help, please send mail to
  191: 	the &a.hackers;.</para>
  192: 
  193:       <para>Please note that these mailing lists can experience
  194: 	<emphasis>significant</emphasis> amounts of traffic.  If you
  195: 	have slow or expensive mail access, or are only interested in
  196: 	keeping up with major &os; events, you may find it
  197: 	preferable to subscribe instead to the &a.announce;.</para>
  198: 
  199:       <para>All of the mailing lists can be freely joined by anyone
  200: 	wishing to do so. Visit <ulink url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo">
  201: 	FreeBSD Mailman Info Page</ulink>.  This will give you more
  202: 	information on joining the various lists, accessing archives,
  203: 	etc.  There are a number of mailing lists targeted at special
  204: 	interest groups not mentioned here; more information can be
  205: 	obtained either through majordomo or the <ulink
  206: 	url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/support.html#mailing-list">mailing
  207: 	lists section</ulink> of the &os; Web site.</para>
  208: 
  209:       <important>
  210: 	<para>Do <emphasis>not</emphasis> send email to the lists
  211: 	  asking to be subscribed.  Use the &a.majordomo; address
  212: 	  instead.</para>
  213:       </important>
  214:     </sect2>
  215: 
  216:     <sect2>
  217:       <title>Submitting Problem Reports</title>
  218: 
  219:       <para>Suggestions, bug reports and contributions of code are
  220: 	always valued&mdash;please do not hesitate to report any
  221: 	problems you may find.  Bug reports with attached fixes are of
  222: 	course even more welcome.</para>
  223: 
  224:       <para>The preferred method to submit bug reports from a machine
  225: 	with Internet mail connectivity is to use the &man.send-pr.1;
  226: 	command or use the Web form at <ulink
  227: 	url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/send-pr.html"></ulink>.
  228: 	<quote>Problem Reports</quote> (PRs) submitted in this way
  229: 	will be filed and their progress tracked; the &os; developers
  230: 	will do their best to respond to all reported bugs as soon as
  231: 	possible.  <ulink
  232: 	url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/cgi/query-pr-summary.cgi">A list
  233: 	of all active PRs</ulink> is available on the &os; Web site;
  234: 	this list is useful to see what potential problems other users
  235: 	have encountered.</para>
  236: 
  237:       <para>Note that &man.send-pr.1; itself is a shell script that
  238: 	should be easy to move even onto a non-&os; system.  Using
  239: 	this interface is highly preferred.  If, for some reason, you
  240: 	are unable to use &man.send-pr.1; to submit a bug report, you
  241: 	can try to send it to the &a.bugs;.</para>
  242: 
  243:       <para>For more information, <ulink
  244: 	url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/problem-reports/"><quote>Writing
  245: 	FreeBSD Problem Reports</quote></ulink>, available on the &os; Web
  246: 	site, has a number of helpful hints on writing and submitting
  247: 	effective problem reports.</para>
  248:     </sect2>
  249:   </sect1>
  250: 
  251:   <sect1>
  252:     <title>Further Reading</title>
  253: 
  254:     <para>There are many sources of information about &os;; some are
  255:       included with this distribution, while others are available
  256:       on-line or in print versions.</para>
  257: 
  258:     <sect2 id="release-docs">
  259:       <title>Release Documentation</title>
  260: 
  261:       <para>A number of other files provide more specific information
  262: 	about this &release.type; distribution.  These files are
  263: 	provided in various formats.  Most distributions will include
  264: 	both ASCII text (<filename>.TXT</filename>) and HTML
  265: 	(<filename>.HTM</filename>) renditions.  Some distributions
  266: 	may also include other formats such as PostScript
  267: 	(<filename>.PS</filename>) or Portable Document Format
  268: 	(<filename>.PDF</filename>).
  269: 
  270: 	<itemizedlist>
  271: 	  <listitem>
  272: 	    <para><filename>README.TXT</filename>: This file, which
  273: 	      gives some general information about &os; as well as
  274: 	      some cursory notes about obtaining a
  275: 	      distribution.</para>
  276: 	  </listitem>
  277: 
  278: 	  <listitem>
  279: 	    <para><filename>RELNOTES.TXT</filename>: The release
  280: 	      notes, showing what's new and different in &os;
  281: 	      &release.current; compared to the previous release (&os;
  282: 	      &release.prev;).</para>
  283: 	  </listitem>
  284: 
  285: 	  <listitem>
  286: 	    <para><filename>HARDWARE.TXT</filename>: The hardware
  287: 	      compatability list, showing devices with which &os; has
  288: 	      been tested and is known to work.</para>
  289: 	  </listitem>
  290: 
  291: 	  <listitem>
  292: 	    <para><filename>INSTALL.TXT</filename>: Installation
  293: 	      instructions for installing &os; from its distribution
  294: 	      media.</para>
  295: 	  </listitem>
  296: 
  297: 	  <listitem>
  298: 	    <para><filename>ERRATA.TXT</filename>: Release errata.
  299: 	      Late-breaking, post-release information can be found in
  300: 	      this file, which is principally applicable to releases
  301: 	      (as opposed to snapshots).  It is important to consult
  302: 	      this file before installing a release of &os;, as it
  303: 	      contains the latest information on problems which have
  304: 	      been found and fixed since the release was
  305: 	      created.</para>
  306: 	  </listitem>
  307: 	</itemizedlist>
  308: 
  309: 	<note>
  310: 	  <para>Several of these documents (in particular,
  311: 	    <filename>RELNOTES.TXT</filename>,
  312: 	    <filename>HARDWARE.TXT</filename>, and
  313: 	    <filename>INSTALL.TXT</filename>) contain information that
  314: 	    is specific to a particular hardware architecture.  For
  315: 	    example, the alpha release notes contain information not
  316: 	    applicable to the i386, and vice versa.  The architecture
  317: 	    for which each document applies will be listed in that
  318: 	    document's title.</para>
  319: 	</note>
  320: 
  321:       </para>
  322: 
  323:       <para>These documents are generally available via the
  324: 	Documentation menu during installation.  Once the system is
  325: 	installed, you can revisit this menu by running the
  326: 	&man.sysinstall.8; utility.</para>
  327: 
  328:       <note>
  329: 	<para>It is extremely important to read the errata for any
  330: 	  given release before installing it, to learn about any
  331: 	  <quote>late-breaking news</quote> or post-release problems.
  332: 	  The errata file accompanying each release (most likely right
  333: 	  next to this file) is already out of date by definition, but
  334: 	  other copies are kept updated on the Internet and should be
  335: 	  consulted as the <quote>current errata</quote> for this
  336: 	  release.  These other copies of the errata are located at
  337: 	  <ulink url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/"></ulink> (as
  338: 	  well as any sites which keep up-to-date mirrors of this
  339: 	  location).</para>
  340:       </note>
  341:     </sect2>
  342: 
  343:     <sect2>
  344:       <title>Manual Pages</title>
  345: 
  346:       <para>As with almost all UNIX-like operating systems, &os; comes
  347: 	with a set of on-line manual pages, accessed through the
  348: 	&man.man.1; command or through the <ulink
  349: 	url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/cgi/man.cgi">hypertext manual
  350: 	pages gateway</ulink> on the &os; Web site.  In general, the
  351: 	manual pages provide information on the different commands and
  352: 	APIs available to the &os; user.</para>
  353: 
  354:       <para>In some cases, manual pages are written to give
  355: 	information on particular topics.  Notable examples of such
  356: 	manual pages are &man.tuning.7; (a guide to performance tuning),
  357: 	&man.security.7; (an introduction to &os; security), and
  358: 	&man.style.9; (a style guide to kernel coding).</para>
  359:     </sect2>
  360: 
  361:     <sect2>
  362:       <title>Books and Articles</title>
  363: 
  364:       <para>Two highly-useful collections of &os;-related information,
  365: 	maintained by the &os; Project,
  366: 	are the &os; Handbook and &os; FAQ (Frequently Asked
  367: 	Questions document).  On-line versions of the <ulink
  368: 	url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/">Handbook</ulink>
  369: 	and <ulink
  370: 	url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/faq/">FAQ</ulink>
  371: 	are always available from the <ulink
  372: 	url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/docs.html">FreeBSD Documentation
  373: 	page</ulink> or its mirrors.  If you install the
  374: 	<filename>doc</filename> distribution set, you can use a Web
  375: 	browser to read the Handbook and FAQ locally.</para>
  376: 
  377:       <para>A number of on-line books and articles, also maintained by
  378:         the &os; Project, cover more-specialized, &os;-related topics.
  379:         This material spans a wide range of topics, from effective use
  380:         of the mailing lists, to dual-booting &os; with other
  381:         operating systems, to guidelines for new committers.  Like the
  382:         Handbook and FAQ, these documents are available from the &os;
  383:         Documentation Page or in the <filename>doc</filename>
  384:         distribution set.</para>
  385: 
  386:       <para>A listing of other books and documents about &os; can be
  387:         found in the <ulink
  388:         url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/bibliography.html">bibliography</ulink>
  389:         of the &os; Handbook.  Because of &os;'s strong UNIX heritage,
  390:         many other articles and books written for UNIX systems are
  391:         applicable as well, some of which are also listed in the
  392:         bibliography.</para>
  393:     </sect2>
  394:   </sect1>
  395: 
  396:   <sect1>
  397:     <title>Acknowledgments</title>
  398: 
  399:     <para>&os; represents the cumulative work of many hundreds, if not
  400:       thousands, of individuals from around the world who have worked
  401:       countless hours to bring about this &release.type;.  For a
  402:       complete list of &os; developers and contributors, please see
  403:       <ulink
  404:       url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributors/"><quote>Contributors
  405:       to FreeBSD</quote></ulink> on the &os; Web site or any of its
  406:       mirrors.</para>
  407: 
  408:     <para>Special thanks also go to the many thousands of &os; users
  409:       and testers all over the world, without whom this &release.type;
  410:       simply would not have been possible.</para>
  411:   </sect1>
  412: </article>
  413: 
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