Updated for X.Org's X11 server by Ken Tom and Marc Fonvieille. Updated for DragonFly by Victor Balada Diaz.
This chapter will cover the installation and some configuration of X11. For more information on the video hardware that X11 supports, check the X.org web site. If you have problems configuring, just search the web. There are lots of tutorials and guides on how to set up your X properly.
Before reading this chapter, you should know how to install additional third-party software. Read the pkgsrc section of the documentation.
X.org itself does not give you a window manager. You will have to choose one and install it yourself. There are dozens of window managers available for X. Each of these provides a different look and feel. Window managers are available in the
wm category of the pkgsrc collection.
In addition, the KDE and GNOME desktop environments both have their own window managers which integrate with the desktop.
Every window manager also has a different configuration mechanism. Read your manager's documentation to learn more.
X.org is currently available in the DragonFly pkgsrc framework.
# cd /usr/pkgsrc/meta-pkgs/modular-xorg # bmake install clean
Alternatively, X11 can be installed directly from pre built packages with pkg_radd(1). So to fetch and install the package of X.org, type:
# pkg_radd modular-xorg
Note: The examples above will install the complete X11 distribution including the server, drivers, programs, libraries and fonts. Separate packages for everything are available.
***Contributed by Christopher Shumway. ***
As of version 7.3, Xorg can often work without any configuration file by simply typing at prompt:
If this does not work, or if the default configuration is not acceptable, then X11 must be configured manually. Configuration of X11 is a multi-step process. The first step is to build an initial configuration file. As the super user, simply run:
# Xorg -configure
This will generate an X11 configuration skeleton file in the
/root directory called
xorg.conf.new (whether you su(1) or do a direct login affects the inherited supervisor
$HOME directory variable). The X11 program will attempt to probe the graphics hardware on the system and write a configuration file to load the proper drivers for the detected hardware on the target system.
The next step is to test the existing configuration to verify that X.org can work with the graphics hardware on the target system. To perform this task, type:
# Xorg -config xorg.conf.new
If a black and grey grid and an X mouse cursor appear, the configuration was successful. To exit the test, just press Ctrl + Alt + Backspace simultaneously.
Note: If the mouse does not work, you will need to first configure it before proceeding. This can usually be achieved by just using
/dev/sysmouse as the input device in the config file and enabling
# rcenable moused
xorg.conf.new configuration file to taste and move it to where Xorg(1) can find it. This is typically
Contributed by Seth Kingsley.
The X Display Manager ( XDM ) is an optional part of the X Window System that is used for login session management. This is useful for several types of situations, including minimal "X Terminals", desktops, and large network display servers. Since the X Window System is network and protocol independent, there are a wide variety of possible configurations for running X clients and servers on different machines connected by a network. XDM provides a graphical interface for choosing which display server to connect to, and entering authorization information such as a login and password combination.
Think of XDM as providing the same functionality to the user as the getty(8) utility (see Section 17.3.2 for details). That is, it performs system logins to the display being connected to and then runs a session manager on behalf of the user (usually an X window manager). XDM then waits for this program to exit, signaling that the user is done and should be logged out of the display. At this point, XDM can display the login and display chooser screens for the next user to login.
The XDM daemon program is located in
/usr/pkg/bin/xdm. This program can be run at any time as
root and it will start managing the X display on the local machine. If XDM is to be run every time the machine boots up, a convenient way to do this is by adding an entry to
/etc/ttys. For more information about the format and usage of this file, see Section 18.104.22.168. There is a line in the default
/etc/ttys file for running the XDM daemon on a virtual terminal:
ttyv8 "/usr/pkg/bin/xdm -nodaemon" xterm off secure
By default this entry is disabled; in order to enable it change field 5 from
on and restart init(8) using the directions in Section 22.214.171.124. The first field, the name of the terminal this program will manage, is
ttyv8. This means that XDM will start running on the 9th virtual terminal.
The XDM configuration directory is located in
/var/lib/xdm. The sample configuration files are in
/usr/pkg/share/examples/xdm/, in this directory there are several files used to change the behavior and appearance of XDM . Typically these files will be found:
||Client authorization ruleset.|
||Default X resource values.|
||List of remote and local displays to manage.|
||Default session script for logins.|
||Script to launch applications before the login interface.|
||Global configuration for all displays running on this machine.|
||Errors generated by the server program.|
||The process ID of the currently running XDM.|
Also in this directory are a few scripts and programs used to set up the desktop when XDM is running. The purpose of each of these files will be briefly described. The exact syntax and usage of all of these files is described in xdm(1).
The default configuration is a simple rectangular login window with the hostname of the machine displayed at the top in a large font and "Login:" and "Password:" prompts below. This is a good starting point for changing the look and feel of XDM screens.
The protocol for connecting to XDM controlled displays is called the X Display Manager Connection Protocol (XDMCP). This file is a ruleset for controlling XDMCP connections from remote machines. It is ignored unless the
xdm-config is changed to listen for remote connections. By default, it does not allow any clients to connect.
This is an application-defaults file for the display chooser and the login screens. This is where the appearance of the login program can be modified. The format is identical to the app-defaults file described in the X11 documentation.
This is a list of the remote displays the chooser should provide as choices.
This is the default session script for XDM to run after a user has logged in. Normally each user will have a customized session script in
~/.xsession that overrides this script.
These will be run automatically before displaying the chooser or login interfaces. There is a script for each display being used, named
Xsetup_ followed by the local display number (for instance
Xsetup_0). Typically these scripts will run one or two programs in the background such as
This contains settings in the form of app-defaults that are applicable to every display that this installation manages.
This contains the output of the X servers that XDM is trying to run. If a display that XDM is trying to start hangs for some reason, this is a good place to look for error messages. These messages are also written to the user's
~/.xsession-errors file on a per-session basis.
In order for other clients to connect to the display server, edit the access control rules, and enable the connection listener. By default these are set to conservative values. To make XDM listen for connections, first comment out a line in the
! SECURITY: do not listen for XDMCP or Chooser requests ! Comment out this line if you want to manage X terminals with xdm DisplayManager.requestPort: 0
and then restart XDM . Remember that comments in app-defaults files begin with a "!" character, not the usual "#". More strict access controls may be desired. Look at the example entries in
Xaccess, and refer to the xdm(1) manual page for further information.
Several replacements for the default XDM program exist. One of them, kdm (bundled with KDE ) is described later in this chapter. The kdm display manager offers many visual improvements and cosmetic frills, as well as the functionality to allow users to choose their window manager of choice at login time.
*Contributed by Valentino Vaschetto. *
This section describes the different desktop environments available for X on FreeBSD. A desktop environment can mean anything ranging from a simple window manager to a complete suite of desktop applications, such as KDE or GNOME .
GNOME is a user-friendly desktop environment that enables users to easily use and configure their computers. GNOME includes a panel (for starting applications and displaying status), a desktop (where data and applications can be placed), a set of standard desktop tools and applications, and a set of conventions that make it easy for applications to cooperate and be consistent with each other. Users of other operating systems or environments should feel right at home using the powerful graphics-driven environment that GNOME provides.
GNOME can be easily installed from a package or from the pkgsrc framework:
To install the GNOME package from the network, simply type:
# pkg_radd gnome
To build GNOME from source, use the ports tree:
# cd /usr/pkgsrc/meta-pkgs/gnome # bmake install clean
Once GNOME is installed, the X server must be told to start GNOME instead of a default window manager.
The easiest way to start GNOME is with GDM , the GNOME Display Manager. GDM , which is installed as a part of the GNOME desktop (but is disabled by default), can be enabled by adding
/etc/rc.conf. Once you have rebooted, GNOME will start automatically once you log in -- no further configuration is necessary.
GNOME may also be started from the command-line by properly configuring a file named
.xinitrc. If a custom
.xinitrc is already in place, simply replace the line that starts the current window manager with one that starts /usr/pkg/bin/gnome-session instead. If nothing special has been done to the configuration file, then it is enough simply to type:
% echo "/usr/pkg/bin/gnome-session" > ~/.xinitrc
startx, and the GNOME desktop environment will be started.
Note: If an older display manager, like XDM , is being used, this will not work. Instead, create an executable
.xsession file with the same command in it. To do this, edit the file and replace the existing window manager command with /usr/pkg/bin/gnome-session :
% echo "#!/bin/sh" > ~/.xsession % echo "/usr/pkg/bin/gnome-session" >> ~/.xsession % chmod +x ~/.xsession
Yet another option is to configure the display manager to allow choosing the window manager at login time; the section on KDE details explains how to do this for kdm , the display manager of KDE .
X11 supports anti-aliasing via its RENDER extension. GTK+ 2.0 and greater (the toolkit used by GNOME ) can make use of this functionality. Configuring anti-aliasing is described in Section 5.5.3.
So, with up-to-date software, anti-aliasing is possible within the GNOME desktop. Just go to Applications->Desktop Preferences->Font , and select either Best shapes, Best contrast, or Subpixel smoothing (LCDs). For a GTK+ application that is not part of the GNOME desktop, set the environment variable
1 before launching the program.
KDE is an easy to use contemporary desktop environment. Some of the things that KDE brings to the user are:
A beautiful contemporary desktop
A desktop exhibiting complete network transparency
An integrated help system allowing for convenient, consistent access to help on the use of the KDE desktop and its applications
Consistent look and feel of all KDE applications
Standardized menu and toolbars, keybindings, color-schemes, etc.
Internationalization: KDE is available in more than 40 languages
Centralized consisted dialog driven desktop configuration
A great number of useful KDE applications
KDE comes with a web browser called Konqueror , which represents a solid competitor to other existing web browsers on UNIX® systems. More information on KDE can be found on the KDE website.
Just as with GNOME or any other desktop environment, the easiest way to install KDE is through the pkgsrc framework or from a package:
To install the KDE package from the network, simply type:
# pkg_radd kde3
or if you prefer the newer KDE 4, type:
# pkg_radd kde4
pkg_radd(1) will automatically fetch the latest version of the application.
To build KDE from source, use the pkgsrc framework:
# cd /usr/pkgsrc/meta-pkgs/kde3 # bmake install clean
After KDE has been installed, the X server must be told to launch this application instead of the default window manager. This is accomplished by editing the
% echo "exec startkde" > ~/.xinitrc
Now, whenever the X Window System is invoked with
startx, KDE will be the desktop.
If a display manager such as XDM is being used, the configuration is slightly different. Edit the
.xsession file instead. Instructions for kdm are described later in this chapter.
Now that KDE is installed on the system, most things can be discovered through the help pages, or just by pointing and clicking at various menus. Windows® or Mac® users will feel quite at home.
The best reference for KDE is the on-line documentation. KDE comes with its own web browser, Konqueror , dozens of useful applications, and extensive documentation. The remainder of this section discusses the technical items that are difficult to learn by random exploration.
An administrator of a multi-user system may wish to have a graphical login screen to welcome users. XDM can be used, as described earlier. However, KDE includes an alternative, kdm , which is designed to look more attractive and include more login-time options. In particular, users can easily choose (via a menu) which desktop environment ( KDE , GNOME , or something else) to run after logging on.
To enable kdm , the
ttyv8 entry in
/etc/ttys has to be adapted. The line should look as follows:
ttyv8 "/usr/pkg/bin/kdm -nodaemon" xterm on secure
XFce is a desktop environment based on the GTK+ toolkit used by GNOME , but is much more lightweight and meant for those who want a simple, efficient desktop which is nevertheless easy to use and configure. Visually, it looks very much like CDE , found on commercial UNIX systems. Some of XFce 's features are:
A simple, easy-to-handle desktop
Fully configurable via mouse, with drag and drop, etc
Main panel similar to CDE , with menus, applets and applications launchers
Integrated window manager, file manager, sound manager, GNOME compliance module, and other things
Themeable (since it uses GTK+)
Fast, light and efficient: ideal for older/slower machines or machines with memory limitations
More information on XFce can be found on the XFce website.
A binary package for XFce exists. To install, simply type:
# pkg_radd xfce4
Alternatively, to build from source, use the pkgsrc framework:
# cd /usr/pkgsrc/meta-pkgs/xfce4 # bmake install clean
Now, tell the X server to launch XFce the next time X is started. Simply type this:
% echo "/usr/pkg/bin/startxfce4" > ~/.xinitrc
The next time X is started, XFce will be the desktop. As before, if a display manager like XDM is being used, create an
.xsession, as described in the section on GNOME, but with the
/usr/pkg/bin/startxfce4 command; or, configure the display manager to allow choosing a desktop at login time, as explained in the section on kdm.