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HAMMER(5)		 DragonFly File Formats Manual		     HAMMER(5)


HAMMER -- HAMMER file system


To compile this driver into the kernel, place the following line in your kernel configuration file: options HAMMER Alternatively, to load the driver as a module at boot time, place the following line in loader.conf(5): hammer_load="YES" To mount via fstab(5): /dev/ad0s1d[:/dev/ad1s1d:...] /mnt hammer rw 2 0


The HAMMER file system provides facilities to store file system data onto disk devices and is intended to replace ffs(5) as the default file system for DragonFly. Among its features are instant crash recovery, large file systems span- ning multiple volumes, data integrity checking, data deduplication, fine grained history retention and snapshots, pseudo-filesystems (PFSs), mir- roring capability and unlimited number of files and links. All functions related to managing HAMMER file systems are provided by the newfs_hammer(8), mount_hammer(8), hammer(8), sysctl(8), chflags(1), and undo(1) utilities. For a more detailed introduction refer to the paper and slides listed in the SEE ALSO section. For some common usages of HAMMER see the EXAMPLES section below. Description of HAMMER features: Instant Crash Recovery After a non-graceful system shutdown, HAMMER file systems will be brought back into a fully coherent state when mounting the file system, usually within a few seconds. In the unlikely case HAMMER mount fails due redo recovery (stage 2 recov- ery) being corrupted, a workaround to skip this stage can be applied by setting the following tunable: vfs.hammer.skip_redo=<value> Possible values are: 0 Run redo recovery normally and fail to mount in the case of error (default). 1 Run redo recovery but continue mounting if an error appears. 2 Completely bypass redo recovery. Related commands: mount_hammer(8) Large File Systems & Multi Volume A HAMMER file system can be up to 1 Exabyte in size. It can span up to 256 volumes, each volume occupies a DragonFly disk slice or partition, or another special file, and can be up to 4096 TB in size. Minimum recom- mended HAMMER file system size is 50 GB. For volumes over 2 TB in size gpt(8) and disklabel64(8) normally need to be used. Related hammer(8) commands: volume-add, volume-del, volume-list, volume-blkdevs; see also newfs_hammer(8) Data Integrity Checking HAMMER has high focus on data integrity, CRC checks are made for all major structures and data. HAMMER snapshots implements features to make data integrity checking easier: The atime and mtime fields are locked to the ctime for files accessed via a snapshot. The st_dev field is based on the PFS shared-uuid and not on any real device. This means that ar- chiving the contents of a snapshot with e.g. tar(1) and piping it to something like md5(1) will yield a consistent result. The consistency is also retained on mirroring targets. Data Deduplication To save disk space data deduplication can be used. Data deduplication will identify data blocks which occur multiple times and only store one copy, multiple reference will be made to this copy. Related hammer(8) commands: dedup, dedup-simulate, cleanup, config Transaction IDs The HAMMER file system uses 64-bit transaction ids to refer to historical file or directory data. Transaction ids used by HAMMER are monotonically increasing over time. In other words: when a transaction is made, HAMMER will always use higher transaction ids for following transactions. A transaction id is given in hexadecimal format 0x016llx, such as 0x00000001061a8ba6. Related hammer(8) commands: snapshot, snap, snaplo, snapq, snapls, synctid History & Snapshots History metadata on the media is written with every sync operation, so that by default the resolution of a file's history is 30-60 seconds until the next prune operation. Prior versions of files and directories are generally accessible by appending `@@' and a transaction id to the name. The common way of accessing history, however, is by taking snapshots. Snapshots are softlinks to prior versions of directories and their files. Their data will be retained across prune operations for as long as the softlink exists. Removing the softlink enables the file system to reclaim the space again upon the next prune & reblock operations. In HAMMER Version 3+ snapshots are also maintained as file system meta-data. Related hammer(8) commands: cleanup, history, snapshot, snap, snaplo, snapq, snaprm, snapls, config, viconfig; see also undo(1) Pruning & Reblocking Pruning is the act of deleting file system history. By default only his- tory used by the given snapshots and history from after the latest snap- shot will be retained. By setting the per PFS parameter prune-min, his- tory is guaranteed to be saved at least this time interval. All other history is deleted. Reblocking will reorder all elements and thus defragment the file system and free space for reuse. After pruning a file system must be reblocked to recover all available space. Reblocking is needed even when using the nohistory mount_hammer(8) option or chflags(1) flag. Related hammer(8) commands: cleanup, snapshot, prune, prune-everything, rebalance, reblock, reblock-btree, reblock-inodes, reblock-dirs, reblock-data Pseudo-Filesystems (PFSs) A pseudo-filesystem, PFS for short, is a sub file system in a HAMMER file system. All disk space in a HAMMER file system is shared between all PFSs in it, so each PFS is free to use all remaining space. A HAMMER file system supports up to 65536 PFSs. The root of a HAMMER file system is PFS# 0, it is called the root PFS and is always a master PFS. A non-root PFS can be either master or slave. Slaves are always read- only, so they can't be updated by normal file operations, only by hammer(8) operations like mirroring and pruning. Upgrading slaves to masters and downgrading masters to slaves are supported. It is recommended to use a null mount to access a PFS, except for root PFS; this way no tools are confused by the PFS root being a symlink and inodes not being unique across a HAMMER file system. Many hammer(8) operations operates per PFS, this includes mirroring, off- line deduping, pruning, reblocking and rebalancing. Related hammer(8) commands: pfs-master, pfs-slave, pfs-status, pfs-update, pfs-destroy, pfs-upgrade, pfs-downgrade; see also mount_null(8) Mirroring Mirroring is copying of all data in a file system, including snapshots and other historical data. In order to allow inode numbers to be dupli- cated on the slaves HAMMER mirroring feature uses PFSs. A master or slave PFS can be mirrored to a slave PFS. I.e. for mirroring multiple slaves per master are supported, but multiple masters per slave are not. HAMMER does not support multi-master clustering and mirroring. Related hammer(8) commands: mirror-copy, mirror-stream, mirror-read, mirror-read-stream, mirror-write, mirror-dump Fsync Flush Modes The HAMMER file system implements several different fsync() flush modes, the mode used is set via the vfs.hammer.flush_mode sysctl, see hammer(8) for details. Unlimited Number of Files and Links There is no limit on the number of files or links in a HAMMER file sys- tem, apart from available disk space. NFS Export HAMMER file systems support NFS export. NFS export of PFSs is done using null mounts (for file/directory in root PFS null mount is not needed). For example, to export the PFS /hammer/pfs/data, create a null mount, e.g. to /hammer/data and export the latter path. Don't export a directory containing a PFS (e.g. /hammer/pfs above). Only null mount for PFS root (e.g. /hammer/data above) should be exported (subdirectory may be escaped if exported). File System Versions As new features have been introduced to HAMMER a version number has been bumped. Each HAMMER file system has a version, which can be upgraded to support new features. Related hammer(8) commands: version, version-upgrade; see also newfs_hammer(8)


Preparing the File System To create and mount a HAMMER file system use the newfs_hammer(8) and mount_hammer(8) commands. Note that all HAMMER file systems must have a unique name on a per-machine basis. newfs_hammer -L HOME /dev/ad0s1d mount_hammer /dev/ad0s1d /home Similarly, multi volume file systems can be created and mounted by speci- fying additional arguments. newfs_hammer -L MULTIHOME /dev/ad0s1d /dev/ad1s1d mount_hammer /dev/ad0s1d /dev/ad1s1d /home Once created and mounted, HAMMER file systems need periodic clean up mak- ing snapshots, pruning and reblocking, in order to have access to history and file system not to fill up. For this it is recommended to use the hammer(8) cleanup metacommand. By default, DragonFly is set up to run hammer cleanup nightly via periodic(8). It is also possible to perform these operations individually via crontab(5). For example, to reblock the /home file system every night at 2:15 for up to 5 minutes: 15 2 * * * hammer -c /var/run/HOME.reblock -t 300 reblock /home \ >/dev/null 2>&1 Snapshots The hammer(8) utility's snapshot command provides several ways of taking snapshots. They all assume a directory where snapshots are kept. mkdir /snaps hammer snapshot /home /snaps/snap1 (...after some changes in /home...) hammer snapshot /home /snaps/snap2 The softlinks in /snaps point to the state of the /home directory at the time each snapshot was taken, and could now be used to copy the data somewhere else for backup purposes. By default, DragonFly is set up to create nightly snapshots of all HAMMER file systems via periodic(8) and to keep them for 60 days. Pruning A snapshot directory is also the argument to the hammer(8) prune command which frees historical data from the file system that is not pointed to by any snapshot link and is not from after the latest snapshot and is older than prune-min. rm /snaps/snap1 hammer prune /snaps Mirroring Mirroring is set up using HAMMER pseudo-filesystems (PFSs). To associate the slave with the master its shared UUID should be set to the master's shared UUID as output by the hammer pfs-master command. hammer pfs-master /home/pfs/master hammer pfs-slave /home/pfs/slave shared-uuid=<master's shared uuid> The /home/pfs/slave link is unusable for as long as no mirroring opera- tion has taken place. To mirror the master's data, either pipe a mirror-read command into a mirror-write or, as a short-cut, use the mirror-copy command (which works across a ssh(1) connection as well). Initial mirroring operation has to be done to the PFS path (as mount_null(8) can't access it yet). hammer mirror-copy /home/pfs/master /home/pfs/slave It is also possible to have the target PFS auto created by just issuing the same mirror-copy command, if the target PFS doesn't exist you will be prompted if you would like to create it. You can even omit the prompting by using the -y flag: hammer -y mirror-copy /home/pfs/master /home/pfs/slave After this initial step null mount can be setup for /home/pfs/slave. Further operations can use null mounts. mount_null /home/pfs/master /home/master mount_null /home/pfs/slave /home/slave hammer mirror-copy /home/master /home/slave NFS Export To NFS export from the HAMMER file system /hammer the directory /hammer/non-pfs without PFSs, and the PFS /hammer/pfs/data, the latter is null mounted to /hammer/data. Add to /etc/fstab (see fstab(5)): /hammer/pfs/data /hammer/data null rw Add to /etc/exports (see exports(5)): /hammer/non-pfs /hammer/data


hammer: System has insuffient buffers to rebalance the tree. nbuf < %d Rebalancing a HAMMER PFS uses quite a bit of memory and can't be done on low memory systems. It has been reported to fail on 512MB systems. Rebalancing isn't critical for HAMMER file system operation; it is done by hammer rebalance, often as part of hammer cleanup.


chflags(1), md5(1), tar(1), undo(1), exports(5), ffs(5), fstab(5), disklabel64(8), gpt(8), hammer(8), mount_hammer(8), mount_null(8), newfs_hammer(8), periodic(8), sysctl(8) Matthew Dillon, The HAMMER Filesystem, June 2008, http://www.dragonflybsd.org/hammer/hammer.pdf. Matthew Dillon, Slideshow from NYCBSDCon 2008, October 2008, http://www.dragonflybsd.org/presentations/nycbsdcon08/. Michael Neumann, Slideshow for a presentation held at KIT (http://www.kit.edu), January 2010, http://www.ntecs.de/talks/HAMMER.pdf.


The HAMMER file system has a front-end which processes VNOPS and issues necessary block reads from disk, and a back-end which handles meta-data updates on-media and performs all meta-data write operations. Bulk file write operations are handled by the front-end. Because HAMMER defers meta-data updates virtually no meta-data read operations will be issued by the frontend while writing large amounts of data to the file system or even when creating new files or directories, and even though the kernel prioritizes reads over writes the fact that writes are cached by the drive itself tends to lead to excessive priority given to writes. There are four bioq sysctls, shown below with default values, which can be adjusted to give reads a higher priority: kern.bioq_reorder_minor_bytes: 262144 kern.bioq_reorder_burst_bytes: 3000000 kern.bioq_reorder_minor_interval: 5 kern.bioq_reorder_burst_interval: 60 If a higher read priority is desired it is recommended that the kern.bioq_reorder_minor_interval be increased to 15, 30, or even 60, and the kern.bioq_reorder_burst_bytes be decreased to 262144 or 524288.


The HAMMER file system first appeared in DragonFly 1.11.


The HAMMER file system was designed and implemented by Matthew Dillon <dillon@backplane.com>, data deduplication was added by Ilya Dryomov. This manual page was written by Sascha Wildner and updated by Thomas Nikolajsen. DragonFly 4.9 July 7, 2017 DragonFly 4.9

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