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CTAGS(1)	       DragonFly General Commands Manual	      CTAGS(1)

NAME

ctags -- create a tags file

SYNOPSIS

ctags [-BFTadtuwvx] [-f tagsfile] file ...

DESCRIPTION

The ctags utility makes a tags file for ex(1) from the specified C, Pas- cal, Fortran, yacc(1), lex(1), and Lisp sources. A tags file gives the locations of specified objects in a group of files. Each line of the tags file contains the object name, the file in which it is defined, and a search pattern for the object definition, separated by white-space. Using the tags file, ex(1) can quickly locate these object definitions. Depending upon the options provided to ctags, objects will consist of subroutines, typedefs, defines, structs, enums and unions. The following options are available: -B Use backward searching patterns (?...?). -F Use forward searching patterns (/.../) (the default). -a Append to tags file. -d Create tags for #defines that do not take arguments; #defines that take arguments are tagged automatically. -f Place the tag descriptions in a file called tagsfile. The default behaviour is to place them in a file called tags. -t Create tags for typedefs, structs, unions, and enums (default). -T Do not create tags for typedefs, structs, unions, and enums. -u Update the specified files in the tags file, that is, all refer- ences to them are deleted, and the new values are appended to the file. (Beware: this option is implemented in a way which is rather slow; it is usually faster to simply rebuild the tags file.) -v An index of the form expected by vgrind(1) is produced on the standard output. This listing contains the object name, file name, and page number (assuming 64 line pages). Since the output will be sorted into lexicographic order, it may be desired to run the output through sort(1). Sample use: ctags -v files | sort -f > index vgrind -x index -w Suppress warning diagnostics. -x ctags produces a list of object names, the line number and file name on which each is defined, as well as the text of that line and prints this on the standard output. This is a simple index which can be printed out as an off-line readable function index. Files whose names end in .c or .h are assumed to be C source files and are searched for C style routine and macro definitions. Files whose names end in .y are assumed to be yacc(1) source files. Files whose names end in .l are assumed to be Lisp files if their first non-blank character is `;', `(', or `[', otherwise, they are treated as lex(1) files. Other files are first examined to see if they contain any Pascal or Fortran routine definitions, and, if not, are searched for C style definitions. The tag ``main'' is treated specially in C programs. The tag formed is created by prepending `M' to the name of the file, with the trailing .c and any leading pathname components removed. This makes use of ctags practical in directories with more than one program. The yacc(1) and lex(1) files each have a special tag. ``yyparse'' is the start of the second section of the yacc(1) file, and ``yylex'' is the start of the second section of the lex(1) file.

FILES

tags default output tags file

EXIT STATUS

The ctags utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs. Dupli- cate objects are not considered errors.

COMPATIBILITY

The -t option is a no-op for compatibility with previous versions of ctags that did not create tags for typedefs, enums, structs and unions by default.

SEE ALSO

ex(1), vi(1)

STANDARDS

The ctags utility conforms to IEEE Std 1003.1-2008 (``POSIX.1'').

HISTORY

The ctags utility appeared in 3.0BSD.

BUGS

Recognition of functions, subroutines and procedures for Fortran and Pas- cal is done in a very simpleminded way. No attempt is made to deal with block structure; if you have two Pascal procedures in different blocks with the same name you lose. The ctags utility does not understand about Pascal types. The method of deciding whether to look for C, Pascal or Fortran functions is a hack. The ctags utility relies on the input being well formed, and any syntac- tical errors will completely confuse it. It also finds some legal syntax confusing; for example, since it does not understand #ifdef's (inciden- tally, that is a feature, not a bug), any code with unbalanced braces inside #ifdef's will cause it to become somewhat disoriented. In a simi- lar fashion, multiple line changes within a definition will cause it to enter the last line of the object, rather than the first, as the search- ing pattern. The last line of multiple line typedef's will similarly be noted. DragonFly 5.3 May 6, 2016 DragonFly 5.3 etags(1) GNU Tools etags(1)

NAME

etags, ctags - generate tag file for Emacs, vi

SYNOPSIS

etags [-aCDGIQRVh] [-i file] [-l language] [-o tagfile] [-r regexp] [--parse-stdin=file] [--append] [--no-defines] [--globals] [--no-globals] [--no-line-directive] [--include=file] [--ignore-indentation] [--language=language] [--members] [--no-members] [--output=tagfile] [--class-qualify] [--regex=regexp] [--no-regex] [--help] [--version] file ... ctags [-aCdgIQRVh] [-BtTuvwx] [-l language] [-o tagfile] [-r regexp] [--parse-stdin=file] [--append] [--backward-search] [--cxref] [--no-defines] [--globals] [--no-globals] [--no-line-directive] [--ignore-indentation] [--language=language] [--members] [--no-members] [--class-qualify] [--output=tagfile] [--regex=regexp] [--update] [--help] [--version] file ...

DESCRIPTION

The etags program is used to create a tag table file, in a format un- derstood by emacs(1); the ctags program is used to create a similar ta- ble in a format understood by vi(1). Both forms of the program under- stand the syntax of C, Objective C, C++, Java, Fortran, Ada, Cobol, Er- lang, Forth, Go, HTML, LaTeX, Emacs Lisp/Common Lisp, Lua, Makefile, Pascal, Perl, Ruby, PHP, PostScript, Python, Prolog, Scheme and most assembler-like syntaxes. Both forms read the files specified on the command line, and write a tag table (defaults: TAGS for etags, tags for ctags) in the current working directory. Files specified with relative file names will be recorded in the tag table with file names relative to the directory where the tag table resides. If the tag table is in /dev or is the standard output, however, the file names are made rela- tive to the working directory. Files specified with absolute file names will be recorded with absolute file names. Files generated from a source file--like a C file generated from a source Cweb file--will be recorded with the name of the source file. Compressed files are sup- ported using gzip, bzip2, and xz. The programs recognize the language used in an input file based on its file name and contents. The --lan- guage switch can be used to force parsing of the file names following the switch according to the given language, overriding guesses based on filename extensions.

OPTIONS

Some options make sense only for the vi style tag files produced by ctags; etags does not recognize them. The programs accept unambiguous abbreviations for long option names. -a, --append Append to existing tag file. (For vi-format tag files, see also --update.) -B, --backward-search Tag files written in the format expected by vi contain regular expression search instructions; the -B option writes them using the delimiter "?", to search backwards through files. The de- fault is to use the delimiter "/", to search forwards through files. Only ctags accepts this option. --declarations In C and derived languages, create tags for function declara- tions, and create tags for extern variables unless --no-globals is used. In Lisp, create tags for (defvar foo) declarations. -D, --no-defines Do not create tag entries for C preprocessor constant defini- tions and enum constants. This may make the tags file much smaller if many header files are tagged. --globals Create tag entries for global variables in Perl and Makefile. This is the default in C and derived languages. --no-globals Do not tag global variables in C and derived languages. Typi- cally this reduces the file size by one fourth. --no-line-directive Ignore #line preprocessor directives in C and derived languages. The default is to honor those directives, and record the tags as if the file scanned was the one named in the #line directive. This switch is useful when the original file named by #line is no longer available. -i file, --include=file Include a note in the tag file indicating that, when searching for a tag, one should also consult the tags file file after checking the current file. Only etags accepts this option. -I, --ignore-indentation Don't rely on indentation as much as we normally do. Currently, this means not to assume that a closing brace in the first col- umn is the final brace of a function or structure definition in C and C++. -l language, --language=language Parse the following files according to the given language. More than one such options may be intermixed with filenames. Use --help to get a list of the available languages and their de- fault filename extensions. The "auto" language can be used to restore automatic detection of language based on the file name. The "none" language may be used to disable language parsing al- together; only regexp matching is done in this case (see the --regex option). --members Create tag entries for variables that are members of structure- like constructs in PHP. This is the default for C and derived languages. --no-members Do not tag member variables. --packages-only Only tag packages in Ada files. --parse-stdin=file May be used (only once) in place of a file name on the command line. etags will read from standard input and mark the produced tags as belonging to the file FILE. -Q, --class-qualify Qualify tag names with their class name in C++, ObjC, Java, and Perl. This produces tag names of the form class::member for C++ and Perl, class(category) for Objective C, and class.member for Java. For Objective C, this also produces class methods quali- fied with their arguments, as in foo:bar:baz:more. -o tagfile, --output=tagfile Explicit name of file for tag table; for etags only, a file name of - means standard output; overrides default TAGS or tags. (But ignored with -v or -x.) -r regexp, --regex=regexp Make tags based on regexp matching for the files following this option, in addition to the tags made with the standard parsing based on language. May be freely intermixed with filenames and the -R option. The regexps are cumulative, i.e., each such op- tion will add to the previous ones. The regexps are of one of the forms: [{language}]/tagregexp/[nameregexp/]modifiers @regexfile where tagregexp is used to match the tag. It should not match useless characters. If the match is such that more characters than needed are unavoidably matched by tagregexp, it may be use- ful to add a nameregexp, to narrow down the tag scope. ctags ignores regexps without a nameregexp. The syntax of regexps is the same as in emacs. The following character escape sequences are supported: \a, \b, \d, \e, \f, \n, \r, \t, \v, which respec- tively stand for the ASCII characters BEL, BS, DEL, ESC, FF, NL, CR, TAB, VT. The modifiers are a sequence of 0 or more characters among i, which means to ignore case when matching; m, which means that the tagregexp will be matched against the whole file contents at once, rather than line by line, and the matching sequence can match multiple lines; and s, which implies m and means that the dot character in tagregexp matches the newline char as well. The separator, which is / in the examples, can be any character different from space, tab, braces and @. If the separator char- acter is needed inside the regular expression, it must be quoted by preceding it with \. The optional {language} prefix means that the tag should be cre- ated only for files of language language, and ignored otherwise. This is particularly useful when storing many predefined regexps in a file. In its second form, regexfile is the name of a file that con- tains a number of arguments to the --regex= option, one per line. Lines beginning with a space or tab are assumed to be comments, and ignored. Here are some examples. All the regexps are quoted to protect them from shell interpretation. Tag the DEFVAR macros in the emacs source files: --regex='/[ \t]*DEFVAR_[A-Z_ \t(]+"\([^"]+\)"/' Tag VHDL files (this example is a single long line, broken here for formatting reasons): --language=none --regex='/[ \t]*\(ARCHITECTURE\|\ CONFIGURA- TION\) +[^ ]* +OF/' --regex='/[ \t]*\ \(ATTRIBUTE\|ENTITY\|FUNC- TION\|PACKAGE\( BODY\)?\ \|PROCE- DURE\|PROCESS\|TYPE\)[ \t]+\([^ \t(]+\)/\3/' Tag TCL files (this last example shows the usage of a tagreg- exp): --lang=none --regex='/proc[ \t]+\([^ \t]+\)/\1/' A regexp can be preceded by {lang}, thus restricting it to match lines of files of the specified language. Use etags --help to obtain a list of the recognized languages. This feature is par- ticularly useful inside regex files. A regex file contains one regex per line. Empty lines, and those lines beginning with space or tab are ignored. Lines beginning with @ are references to regex files whose name follows the @ sign. Other lines are considered regular expressions like those following --regex. For example, the command etags --regex=@regex.file *.c reads the regexes contained in the file regex.file. -R, --no-regex Don't do any more regexp matching on the following files. May be freely intermixed with filenames and the --regex option. -u, --update Update tag entries for files specified on command line, leaving tag entries for other files in place. Currently, this is imple- mented by deleting the existing entries for the given files and then rewriting the new entries at the end of the tags file. It is often faster to simply rebuild the entire tag file than to use this. Only ctags accepts this option. -v, --vgrind Instead of generating a tag file, write index (in vgrind format) to standard output. Only ctags accepts this option. -x, --cxref Instead of generating a tag file, write a cross reference (in cxref format) to standard output. Only ctags accepts this op- tion. -h, -H, --help Print usage information. Followed by one or more --lan- guage=LANG prints detailed information about how tags are creat- ed for LANG. -V, --version Print the current version of the program (same as the version of the emacs etags is shipped with).

SEE ALSO

"emacs" entry in info; GNU Emacs Manual, Richard Stallman. cxref(1), emacs(1), vgrind(1), vi(1).

COPYING

Copyright (C) 1992, 1999, 2001-2017 Free Software Foundation, Inc. Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this document provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies. Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this document under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a per- mission notice identical to this one. Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this docu- ment into another language, under the above conditions for modified versions, except that this permission notice may be stated in a trans- lation approved by the Free Software Foundation. GNU Tools 23nov2001 etags(1) etags(1) GNU Tools etags(1)

NAME

etags, ctags - generate tag file for Emacs, vi

SYNOPSIS

etags [-aCDGIRVh] [-i file] [-l language] [-o tagfile] [-r regexp] [--parse-stdin=file] [--append] [--no-defines] [--globals] [--no-globals] [--include=file] [--ignore-indentation] [--language=language] [--members] [--no-members] [--output=tagfile] [--regex=regexp] [--no-regex] [--help] [--version] file ... ctags [-aCdgIRVh] [-BtTuvwx] [-l language] [-o tagfile] [-r regexp] [--parse-stdin=file] [--append] [--backward-search] [--cxref] [--no-defines] [--globals] [--no-globals] [--ignore-indentation] [--language=language] [--members] [--no-members] [--output=tagfile] [--regex=regexp] [--update] [--help] [--version] file ...

DESCRIPTION

The etags program is used to create a tag table file, in a format un- derstood by emacs(1); the ctags program is used to create a similar ta- ble in a format understood by vi(1). Both forms of the program under- stand the syntax of C, Objective C, C++, Java, Fortran, Ada, Cobol, Er- lang, Forth, HTML, LaTeX, Emacs Lisp/Common Lisp, Lua, Makefile, Pas- cal, Perl, PHP, PostScript, Python, Prolog, Scheme and most assem- bler-like syntaxes. Both forms read the files specified on the command line, and write a tag table (defaults: TAGS for etags, tags for ctags) in the current working directory. Files specified with relative file names will be recorded in the tag table with file names relative to the directory where the tag table resides. If the tag table is in /dev or is the standard output, however, the file names are made relative to the working directory. Files specified with absolute file names will be recorded with absolute file names. Files generated from a source file--like a C file generated from a source Cweb file--will be recorded with the name of the source file. Compressed files are supported using gzip, bzip2, and xz. The programs recognize the language used in an input file based on its file name and contents. The --language switch can be used to force parsing of the file names following the switch ac- cording to the given language, overriding guesses based on filename ex- tensions.

OPTIONS

Some options make sense only for the vi style tag files produced by ctags; etags does not recognize them. The programs accept unambiguous abbreviations for long option names. -a, --append Append to existing tag file. (For vi-format tag files, see also --update.) -B, --backward-search Tag files written in the format expected by vi contain regular expression search instructions; the -B option writes them using the delimiter `?', to search backwards through files. The de- fault is to use the delimiter `/', to search forwards through files. Only ctags accepts this option. --declarations In C and derived languages, create tags for function declara- tions, and create tags for extern variables unless --no-globals is used. In Lisp, create tags for (defvar foo) declarations. -D, --no-defines Do not create tag entries for C preprocessor constant defini- tions and enum constants. This may make the tags file much smaller if many header files are tagged. --globals Create tag entries for global variables in Perl and Makefile. This is the default in C and derived languages. --no-globals Do not tag global variables in C and derived languages. Typi- cally this reduces the file size by one fourth. -i file, --include=file Include a note in the tag file indicating that, when searching for a tag, one should also consult the tags file file after checking the current file. Only etags accepts this option. -I, --ignore-indentation Don't rely on indentation as much as we normally do. Currently, this means not to assume that a closing brace in the first col- umn is the final brace of a function or structure definition in C and C++. -l language, --language=language Parse the following files according to the given language. More than one such options may be intermixed with filenames. Use --help to get a list of the available languages and their de- fault filename extensions. The `auto' language can be used to restore automatic detection of language based on the file name. The `none' language may be used to disable language parsing al- together; only regexp matching is done in this case (see the --regex option). --members Create tag entries for variables that are members of structure- like constructs in PHP. This is the default for C and derived languages. --no-members Do not tag member variables. --packages-only Only tag packages in Ada files. --parse-stdin=file May be used (only once) in place of a file name on the command line. etags will read from standard input and mark the produced tags as belonging to the file FILE. -o tagfile, --output=tagfile Explicit name of file for tag table; for etags only, a file name of - means standard output; overrides default TAGS or tags. (But ignored with -v or -x.) -r regexp, --regex=regexp Make tags based on regexp matching for the files following this option, in addition to the tags made with the standard parsing based on language. May be freely intermixed with filenames and the -R option. The regexps are cumulative, i.e., each such op- tion will add to the previous ones. The regexps are of one of the forms: [{language}]/tagregexp/[nameregexp/]modifiers @regexfile where tagregexp is used to match the tag. It should not match useless characters. If the match is such that more characters than needed are unavoidably matched by tagregexp, it may be use- ful to add a nameregexp, to narrow down the tag scope. ctags ignores regexps without a nameregexp. The syntax of regexps is the same as in emacs. The following character escape sequences are supported: \a, \b, \d, \e, \f, \n, \r, \t, \v, which respec- tively stand for the ASCII characters BEL, BS, DEL, ESC, FF, NL, CR, TAB, VT. The modifiers are a sequence of 0 or more characters among i, which means to ignore case when matching; m, which means that the tagregexp will be matched against the whole file contents at once, rather than line by line, and the matching sequence can match multiple lines; and s, which implies m and means that the dot character in tagregexp matches the newline char as well. The separator, which is / in the examples, can be any character different from space, tab, braces and @. If the separator char- acter is needed inside the regular expression, it must be quoted by preceding it with \. The optional {language} prefix means that the tag should be cre- ated only for files of language language, and ignored otherwise. This is particularly useful when storing many predefined regexps in a file. In its second form, regexfile is the name of a file that con- tains a number of arguments to the --regex= option, one per line. Lines beginning with a space or tab are assumed to be comments, and ignored. Here are some examples. All the regexps are quoted to protect them from shell interpretation. Tag the DEFVAR macros in the emacs source files: --regex='/[ \t]*DEFVAR_[A-Z_ \t(]+"\([^"]+\)"/' Tag VHDL files (this example is a single long line, broken here for formatting reasons): --language=none --regex='/[ \t]*\(ARCHITECTURE\|\ CONFIGURA- TION\) +[^ ]* +OF/' --regex='/[ \t]*\ \(ATTRIBUTE\|ENTITY\|FUNC- TION\|PACKAGE\( BODY\)?\ \|PROCE- DURE\|PROCESS\|TYPE\)[ \t]+\([^ \t(]+\)/\3/' Tag TCL files (this last example shows the usage of a tagreg- exp): --lang=none --regex='/proc[ \t]+\([^ \t]+\)/\1/' A regexp can be preceded by {lang}, thus restricting it to match lines of files of the specified language. Use etags --help to obtain a list of the recognized languages. This feature is par- ticularly useful inside regex files. A regex file contains one regex per line. Empty lines, and those lines beginning with space or tab are ignored. Lines beginning with @ are references to regex files whose name follows the @ sign. Other lines are considered regular expressions like those following --regex. For example, the command etags --regex=@regex.file *.c reads the regexes contained in the file regex.file. -R, --no-regex Don't do any more regexp matching on the following files. May be freely intermixed with filenames and the --regex option. -u, --update Update tag entries for files specified on command line, leaving tag entries for other files in place. Currently, this is imple- mented by deleting the existing entries for the given files and then rewriting the new entries at the end of the tags file. It is often faster to simply rebuild the entire tag file than to use this. Only ctags accepts this option. -v, --vgrind Instead of generating a tag file, write index (in vgrind format) to standard output. Only ctags accepts this option. -x, --cxref Instead of generating a tag file, write a cross reference (in cxref format) to standard output. Only ctags accepts this op- tion. -h, -H, --help Print usage information. Followed by one or more --lan- guage=LANG prints detailed information about how tags are creat- ed for LANG. -V, --version Print the current version of the program (same as the version of the emacs etags is shipped with).

SEE ALSO

`emacs' entry in info; GNU Emacs Manual, Richard Stallman. cxref(1), emacs(1), vgrind(1), vi(1).

COPYING

Copyright (C) 1992, 1999, 2001-2015 Free Software Foundation, Inc. Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this document provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies. Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this document under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a per- mission notice identical to this one. Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this docu- ment into another language, under the above conditions for modified versions, except that this permission notice may be stated in a trans- lation approved by the Free Software Foundation. GNU Tools 23nov2001 etags(1)

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