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RSHD(8) 	       DragonFly System Manager's Manual	       RSHD(8)

NAME

rshd -- remote shell server

SYNOPSIS

rshd [-?DLaln]

DESCRIPTION

The rshd server is the server for the rcmd(3) routine and, consequently, for the rsh(1) program. The server provides remote execution facilities with authentication based on privileged port numbers from trusted hosts. The rshd server listens for service requests at the port indicated in the ``cmd'' service specification; see services(5). When a service request is received the following protocol is initiated: 1. The server checks the client's source port. If the port is not in the range 512-1023, the server aborts the connection. 2. The server reads characters from the socket up to a NUL (`\0') byte. The resultant string is interpreted as an ASCII number, base 10. 3. If the number received in step 2 is non-zero, it is interpreted as the port number of a secondary stream to be used for the stderr. A second connection is then created to the specified port on the client's machine. The source port of this second connection is also in the range 512-1023. 4. The server checks the client's source address and requests the cor- responding host name (see gethostbyaddr(3), hosts(5) and named(8)). If the hostname cannot be determined or the hostname and address do not match after verification, the dot-notation representation of the host address is used. 5. A null terminated user name of at most 16 characters is retrieved on the initial socket. This user name is interpreted as the user iden- tity on the client's machine. 6. A null terminated user name of at most 16 characters is retrieved on the initial socket. This user name is interpreted as a user iden- tity to use on the server's machine. 7. A null terminated command to be passed to a shell is retrieved on the initial socket. The length of the command is limited by the upper bound on the size of the system's argument list. 8. Rshd then validates the user using ruserok(3), which uses the file /etc/hosts.equiv and the .rhosts file found in the user's home directory. The -l option prevents ruserok(3) from doing any valida- tion based on the user's .rhosts file, unless the user is the supe- ruser. 9. If the file /var/run/nologin exists and the user is not the supe- ruser, the connection is closed. The name of the nologin file may be overridden using the nologin capability in /etc/login.conf according to the local user's login class, which may also be used to restrict rsh(1) access by login time (times.allow and times.deny capabilities) and remote host (hosts.allow and hosts.deny capabili- ties). 10. A NUL byte is returned on the initial socket and the command line is passed to the normal login shell of the user. The shell inherits the network connections established by rshd. The options are as follows: -? Display the usage message, and exit. -D Sets the TCP_NODELAY socket option, which improves the perfor- mance of small back-to-back writes at the expense of additional network traffic. -L Causes all successful accesses to be logged to syslogd(8) as auth.info messages. -a This flag is ignored, and is present for compatibility purposes. -l Do not use the user's .rhosts file for authentication, unless the user is the superuser. -n Turn off transport level keepalive messages. This will prevent sessions from timing out if the client crashes or becomes unreachable.

FILES

/etc/hosts /etc/hosts.equiv /etc/login.conf $HOME/.rhosts /var/run/nologin

DIAGNOSTICS

Except for the last one listed below, all diagnostic messages are returned on the initial socket, after which any network connections are closed. An error is indicated by a leading byte with a value of 1 (0 is returned in step 10 above upon successful completion of all the steps prior to the execution of the login shell). Locuser too long. The name of the user on the client's machine is longer than 16 characters. Ruser too long. The name of the user on the remote machine is longer than 16 characters. Command too long. The command line passed exceeds the size of the argument list (as configured into the system). Login incorrect. No password file entry for the user name existed or the authenti- cation procedure described above failed. Remote directory. The chdir(2) function to the home directory failed. Logins not available right now. Rsh(1) was attempted outside the allowed hours defined in /etc/login.conf for the local user's login class. Can't make pipe. The pipe needed for the stderr, wasn't created. Can't fork; try again. A fork(2) by the server failed. <shellname>: ... The user's login shell could not be started. This message is returned on the connection associated with the stderr, and is not preceded by a flag byte.

SEE ALSO

rlogin(1), rsh(1), gethostbyaddr(3), rcmd(3), ruserok(3), auth.conf(5), hosts(5), hosts.equiv(5), login.conf(5), nologin(5), services(5), named(8), rlogind(8), syslogd(8)

HISTORY

IPv6 support was added by WIDE/KAME project.

BUGS

The authentication procedure used here assumes the integrity of each client machine and the connecting medium. This is insecure, but is use- ful in an ``open'' environment. A facility to allow all data exchanges to be encrypted should be present. A more extensible protocol (such as Telnet) should be used. DragonFly 5.1 June 4, 1993 DragonFly 5.1 RSHD(8) DragonFly System Manager's Manual RSHD(8)

NAME

rshd -- remote shell server

SYNOPSIS

rshd [-aiklnvxPL] [-p port]

DESCRIPTION

rshd is the server for the rsh(1) program. It provides an authenticated remote command execution service. Supported options are: -n, --no-keepalive Disables keep-alive messages. Keep-alives are packets sent at certain intervals to make sure that the client is still there, even when it doesn't send any data. -k, --kerberos Assume that clients connecting to this server will use some form of Kerberos authentication. See the EXAMPLES section for a sample inetd.conf(5) configuration. -x, --encrypt For Kerberos 4 this means that the connections are encrypted. Kerberos 5 can negotiate encryption even without this option, but if it's present rshd will deny unencrypted connections. This option implies -k. -v, --vacuous If the connecting client does not use any Kerberised authentica- tion, print a message that complains about this fact, and exit. This is helpful if you want to move away from old port-based authentication. -P When using the AFS filesystem, users' authentication tokens are put in something called a PAG (Process Authentication Group). Multiple processes can share a PAG, but normally each login ses- sion has its own PAG. This option disables the setpag() call, so all tokens will be put in the default (uid-based) PAG, making it possible to share tokens between sessions. This is only useful in peculiar environments, such as some batch systems. -i, --no-inetd The -i option will cause rshd to create a socket, instead of assuming that its stdin came from inetd(8). This is mostly use- ful for debugging. -p port, --port=port Port to use with -i. -a This flag is for backwards compatibility only. -L This flag enables logging of connections to syslogd(8). This option is always on in this implementation.

FILES

/etc/hosts.equiv ~/.rhosts

EXAMPLES

The following can be used to enable Kerberised rsh in inetd.cond(5), while disabling non-Kerberised connections: shell stream tcp nowait root /usr/libexec/rshd rshd -v kshell stream tcp nowait root /usr/libexec/rshd rshd -k ekshell stream tcp nowait root /usr/libexec/rshd rshd -kx

SEE ALSO

rsh(1), iruserok(3)

HISTORY

The rshd command appeared in 4.2BSD.

AUTHORS

This implementation of rshd was written as part of the Heimdal Kerberos 5 implementation. HEIMDAL November 22, 2002 HEIMDAL

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