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IFNET(9)	      DragonFly Kernel Developer's Manual	      IFNET(9)


ifnet, ifaddr, ifqueue, if_data -- kernel interfaces for manipulating network interfaces


#include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/time.h> #include <sys/socket.h> #include <net/if.h> #include <net/if_var.h> #include <net/if_types.h> Interface Manipulation Functions void if_attach(struct ifnet *ifp); void if_down(struct ifnet *ifp); int ifioctl(struct socket *so, u_long cmd, caddr_t data, struct proc *p); int ifpromisc(struct ifnet *ifp, int pswitch); int if_allmulti(struct ifnet *ifp, int amswitch); struct ifnet * ifunit(const char *name); void if_up(struct ifnet *ifp); Interface Address Functions struct ifaddr * ifa_ifwithaddr(struct sockaddr *addr); struct ifaddr * ifa_ifwithdstaddr(struct sockaddr *addr); struct ifaddr * ifa_ifwithnet(struct sockaddr *addr); struct ifaddr * ifaof_ifpforaddr(struct sockaddr *addr, struct ifnet *ifp); IFAFREE(struct ifaddr *ifa); Interface Multicast Address Functions int if_addmulti(struct ifnet *ifp, struct sockaddr *sa, struct ifmultiaddr **ifmap); int if_delmulti(struct ifnet *ifp, struct sockaddr *sa); struct ifmultiaddr * ifmaof_ifpforaddr(struct sockaddr *addr, struct ifnet *ifp); Output queue macros IF_DEQUEUE(struct ifqueue *ifq, struct mbuf *m); struct ifnet Member Functions int (*if_output)(struct ifnet *ifp, struct mbuf *m, struct sockaddr *dst, struct rtentry *rt); void (*if_input)(struct ifnet *ifp, struct mbuf *m, const struct pktinfo *pi, int cpuid); void (*if_start)(struct ifnet *ifp, struct ifaltq_subque *ifsq); int (*if_ioctl)(struct ifnet *ifp, u_long command, caddr_t data, struct ucred *cr); void (*if_watchdog)(struct ifnet *ifp); void (*if_init)(void *if_softc); int (*if_resolvemulti)(struct ifnet *ifp, struct sockaddr **retsa, struct sockaddr *addr); void (*if_poll)(struct ifnet *ifp, enum poll_cmd cmd, int count); struct ifaddr member function void (*ifa_rtrequest)(int cmd, struct rtentry *rt, struct sockaddr *dst); Global Variables extern struct ifnethead ifnet; extern int if_index; extern int ifqmaxlen;


The kernel mechanisms for handling network interfaces reside primarily in the ifnet, if_data, ifaddr, and ifmultiaddr structures in <net/if.h> and <net/if_var.h> and the functions named above and defined in sys/net/if.c. Those interfaces which are intended to be used by user programs are defined in <net/if.h>; these include the interface flags, the if_data structure, and the structures defining the appearance of interface- related messages on the route(4) routing socket and in sysctl(3). The header file <net/if_var.h> defines the kernel-internal interfaces, including the ifnet, ifaddr, and ifmultiaddr structures and the functions which manipulate them. (A few user programs will need <net/if_var.h> because it is the prerequisite of some other header file like <netinet/if_ether.h>. Most references to those two files in particular can be replaced by <net/ethernet.h>.) The system keeps a linked list of interfaces using the TAILQ macros defined in queue(3); this list is headed by a struct ifnethead called ifnet. The elements of this list are of type struct ifnet, and most ker- nel routines which manipulate interface as such accept or return pointers to these structures. Each interface structure contains an if_data struc- ture, which contains statistics and identifying information used by man- agement programs, and which is exported to user programs by way of the ifmib(4) branch of the sysctl(3) MIB. Each interface also has a TAILQ of interface addresses, described by ifaddr structures; the head of the queue is always an AF_LINK address (see link_addr(3)) describing the link layer implemented by the interface (if any). (Some trivial interfaces do not provide any link layer addresses; this structure, while still present, serves only to identify the interface name and index.) Finally, those interfaces supporting reception of multicast datagrams have a LIST of multicast group memberships, described by ifmultiaddr structures. These memberships are reference-counted. Interfaces are also associated with an output queue, defined as a struct ifqueue; this structure is used to hold packets while the interface is in the process of sending another. The ifnet structure The fields of struct ifnet are as follows: if_softc (void *) A pointer to the driver's private state block. (Initialized by driver.) if_link (TAILQ_ENTRY(ifnet)) queue(3) macro glue. if_xname (char *) The name of the interface, (e.g., ``fxp0'' or ``lo0)''. (Initialized by driver.) if_dname (const char *) The name of the driver. (Initialized by driver.) if_dunit (int) A unique number assigned to each interface managed by a particular driver. Drivers may choose to set this to IF_DUNIT_NONE if a unit number is not associated with the device. (Initialized by driver.) if_addrhead (struct ifaddrhead) The head of the queue(3) TAILQ containing the list of addresses assigned to this interface. if_pcount (int) A count of promiscuous listeners on this interface, used to reference-count the IFF_PROMISC flag. if_carp (struct carp_if *) Per-interface data for carp(4). if_bpf (struct bpf_if *) Opaque per-interface data for the packet filter, bpf(4). (Initialized by bpfattach().) if_index (u_short) A unique number assigned to each interface in sequence as it is attached. This number can be used in a struct sockaddr_dl to refer to a particu- lar interface by index (see link_addr(3)). if_timer (short) Number of seconds until the watchdog timer if_watchdog() is called, or zero if the timer is disabled. (Set by driver, decremented by generic watchdog code.) if_flags (int) Flags describing operational parameters of this interface (see below). (Manipulated by both driver and generic code.) if_linkmib (void *) A pointer to an interface-specific MIB structure exported by ifmib(4). (Initialized by driver.) if_linkmiblen (size_t) The size of said structure. (Initialized by driver.) if_data (struct if_data) More statistics and information; see The if_data structure, below. (Initialized by driver, manipulated by both driver and generic code.) if_snd (struct ifaltq) The output queue including altq(4). (Manipulated by driver.) There are in addition a number of function pointers which the driver must initialize to complete its interface with the generic interface layer: if_output() Output a packet on interface ifp, or queue it on the output queue if the interface is already active. if_start() Start queued output on an interface. This function is exposed in order to provide for some interface classes to share a if_output() among all drivers. if_start() may only be called when the IFF_OACTIVE flag is not set. (Thus, IFF_OACTIVE does not literally mean that output is active, but rather that the device's internal output queue is full.) if_ioctl() Process interface-related ioctl(2) requests (defined in <sys/sockio.h>). Preliminary processing is done by the generic routine ifioctl() to check for appropriate privileges, locate the interface being manipulated, and perform certain generic operations like twiddling flags and flushing queues. See the description of ifioctl() below for more information. if_watchdog() Routine called by the generic code when the watchdog timer, if_timer, expires. Usually this will reset the interface. if_init() Initialize and bring up the hardware, e.g., reset the chip and the watchdog timer and enable the receiver unit. Should mark the interface running, but not active (IFF_RUNNING, ~IFF_OACTIVE). if_resolvemulti() Check the requested multicast group membership, addr, for validity, and if necessary compute a link-layer group which corresponds to that address which is returned in *retsa. Returns zero on success, or an error code on failure. Interface Flags Interface flags are used for a number of different purposes. Some flags simply indicate information about the type of interface and its capabili- ties; others are dynamically manipulated to reflect the current state of the interface. Flags of the former kind are marked <S> in this table; the latter are marked <D>. IFF_UP <D> The interface has been configured up by the user-level code. IFF_BROADCAST <S*> The interface supports broadcast. IFF_DEBUG <D> Used to enable/disable driver debugging code. IFF_LOOPBACK <S> The interface is a loopback device. IFF_POINTOPOINT <S*> The interface is point-to-point; ``broadcast'' address is actually the address of the other end. IFF_RUNNING <D*> The interface has been configured and dynamic resources were successfully allocated. Probably only useful internal to the interface. IFF_NOARP <D> Disable network address resolution on this interface. IFF_PROMISC <D*> This interface is in promiscuous mode. IFF_PPROMISC <D> This interface is in the permanently promiscu- ous mode (implies IFF_PROMISC). IFF_ALLMULTI <D*> This interface is in all-multicasts mode (used by multicast routers). IFF_OACTIVE <D*> The interface's hardware output queue (if any) is full; output packets are to be queued. IFF_SIMPLEX <S*> The interface cannot hear its own transmis- sions. IFF_LINK0 IFF_LINK1 IFF_LINK2 <D> Control flags for the link layer. (Currently abused to select among multiple physical layers on some devices.) IFF_MULTICAST <S*> This interface supports multicast. IFF_POLLING The interface is in polling mode. The macro IFF_CANTCHANGE defines the bits which cannot be set by a user program using the SIOCSIFFLAGS command to ioctl(2); these are indicated by an asterisk in the listing above. The if_data Structure In 4.4BSD, a subset of the interface information believed to be of inter- est to management stations was segregated from the ifnet structure and moved into its own if_data structure to facilitate its use by user pro- grams. The following elements of the if_data structure are initialized by the interface and are not expected to change significantly over the course of normal operation: ifi_type (u_char) The type of the interface, as defined in <net/if_types.h> and described below in the Interface Types section. ifi_physical (u_char) Intended to represent a selection of phys- ical layers on devices which support more than one; never implemented. ifi_addrlen (u_char) Length of a link-layer address on this device, or zero if there are none. Used to ini- tialize the address length field in sockaddr_dl structures referring to this interface. ifi_hdrlen (u_char) Maximum length of any link-layer header which might be prepended by the driver to a packet before transmission. The generic code computes the maximum over all interfaces and uses that value to influence the placement of data in mbufs to attempt to ensure that there is always sufficient space to prepend a link-layer header without allocating an additional mbuf. ifi_mtu (u_long) The maximum transmission unit of the medium, exclusive of any link-layer overhead. ifi_metric (u_long) A dimensionless metric interpreted by a user-mode routing process. ifi_link_state (u_long) The link state of the interface, either LINK_STATE_UNKNOWN, LINK_STATE_DOWN, or LINK_STATE_UP. ifi_baudrate (uint64_t) The line rate of the interface, in bits per second. The structure additionally contains generic statistics applicable to a variety of different interface types (except as noted, all members are of type u_long): ifi_ipackets Number of packets received. ifi_ierrors Number of receive errors detected (e.g., FCS errors, DMA overruns, etc.). More detailed break- downs can often be had by way of a link-specific MIB. ifi_opackets Number of packets transmitted. ifi_oerrors Number of output errors detected (e.g., late colli- sions, DMA overruns, etc.). More detailed break- downs can often be had by way of a link-specific MIB. ifi_collisions Total number of collisions detected on output for CSMA interfaces. (This member is sometimes [ab]used by other types of interfaces for other output error counts.) ifi_ibytes Total traffic received, in bytes. ifi_obytes Total traffic transmitted, in bytes. ifi_imcasts Number of packets received which were sent by link- layer multicast. ifi_omcasts Number of packets sent by link-layer multicast. ifi_iqdrops Number of packets dropped on input. Rarely imple- mented. ifi_noproto Number of packets received for unknown network- layer protocol. ifi_lastchange (struct timeval) The time of the last administra- tive change to the interface (as required for SNMP). Interface Types The header file <net/if_types.h> defines symbolic constants for a number of different types of interfaces. The most common are: IFT_OTHER none of the following IFT_ETHER Ethernet IFT_ISO88023 ISO 8802-3 CSMA/CD IFT_ISO88024 ISO 8802-4 Token Bus IFT_ISO88025 ISO 8802-5 Token Ring IFT_ISO88026 ISO 8802-6 DQDB MAN IFT_FDDI FDDI IFT_PPP Internet Point-to-Point Protocol (ppp(8)) IFT_LOOP The loopback (lo(4)) interface IFT_SLIP Serial Line IP IFT_PARA Parallel-port IP (``PLIP'') IFT_ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode The ifaddr Structure Every interface is associated with a list (or, rather, a TAILQ) of addresses, rooted at the interface structure's if_addrlist member. The first element in this list is always an AF_LINK address representing the interface itself; multi-access network drivers should complete this structure by filling in their link-layer addresses after calling if_attach(). Other members of the structure represent network-layer addresses which have been configured by means of the SIOCAIFADDR command to ioctl(2), called on a socket of the appropriate protocol family. The elements of this list consist of ifaddr structures. Most protocols will declare their own protocol-specific interface address structures, but all begin with a struct ifaddr which provides the most-commonly-needed func- tionality across all protocols. Interface addresses are reference- counted. The members of struct ifaddr are as follows: ifa_addr (struct sockaddr *) The local address of the inter- face. ifa_dstaddr (struct sockaddr *) The remote address of point-to- point interfaces, and the broadcast address of broadcast interfaces. (ifa_broadaddr is a macro for ifa_dstaddr.) ifa_netmask (struct sockaddr *) The network mask for multi- access interfaces, and the confusion generator for point-to-point interfaces. ifa_ifp (struct ifnet *) A link back to the interface struc- ture. ifa_containers (struct ifaddr_container *) A pointer to an array of ifaddr_container structures which hold per-CPU data. ifa_rtrequest See below. ifa_flags (u_short) Some of the flags which would be used for a route representing this address in the route ta- ble. ifa_metric (int) A metric associated with this interface address, for the use of some external routing proto- col. References to ifaddr structures are gained manually, by incrementing the ifa_refcnt member of the according ifa_containers structure (such as by calling the IFAREF() macro). References are released by calling the IFAFREE() macro. ifa_rtrequest() is a pointer to a function which receives callouts from the routing code (rtrequest()) to perform link-layer-specific actions upon requests to add, resolve, or delete routes. The cmd argument indi- cates the request in question: RTM_ADD, RTM_RESOLVE, or RTM_DELETE. The rt argument is the route in question; the dst argument is the specific destination being manipulated for RTM_RESOLVE, or a null pointer other- wise.


The functions provided by the generic interface code can be divided into two groups: those which manipulate interfaces, and those which manipulate interface addresses. In addition to these functions, there may also be link-layer support routines which are used by a number of drivers imple- menting a specific link layer over different hardware; see the documenta- tion for that link layer for more details. The ifmultiaddr Structure Every multicast-capable interface is associated with a list of multicast group memberships, which indicate at a low level which link-layer multi- cast addresses (if any) should be accepted, and at a high level, in which network-layer multicast groups a user process has expressed interest. The elements of the structure are as follows: ifma_link (LIST_ENTRY(ifmultiaddr)) queue(3) macro glue. ifma_addr (struct sockaddr *) A pointer to the address which this record represents. The memberships for various address families are stored in arbitrary order. ifma_lladdr (struct sockaddr *) A pointer to the link-layer mul- ticast address, if any, to which the network-layer multicast address in ifma_addr is mapped, else a null pointer. If this element is non-NULL, this membership also holds an invisible reference to another membership for that link-layer address. ifma_refcount (u_int) A reference count of requests for this par- ticular membership. Interface Manipulation Functions if_attach() Link the specified interface ifp into the list of network inter- faces. Also initialize the list of addresses on that interface, and create a link-layer ifaddr structure to be the first element in that list. (A pointer to this address structure is saved in the global array ifnet_addrs.) if_down() Mark the interface ifp as down (i.e., IFF_UP is not set), flush its output queue, notify protocols of the transition, and generate a message from the route(4) routing socket. if_up() Mark the interface ifp as up, notify protocols of the transition, and generate a message from the route(4) routing socket. ifpromisc() Add or remove a promiscuous reference to ifp. If pswitch is true, add a reference; if it is false, remove a reference. On reference count transitions from zero to one and one to zero, set the IFF_PROMISC flag appropriately and call if_ioctl() to set up the interface in the desired mode. if_allmulti() As ifpromisc(), but for the all-multicasts (IFF_ALLMULTI) flag instead of the promiscuous flag. ifunit() Return an ifnet pointer for the interface named name. ifioctl() Process the ioctl request cmd, issued on socket so by process p, with data parameter data. This is the main routine for handling all interface configuration requests from user mode. It is ordi- narily only called from the socket-layer ioctl(2) handler, and only for commands with class `i'. Any unrecognized commands will be passed down to socket so's protocol for further interpretation. The following commands are handled by ifioctl(): SIOCGIFCONF Get interface configuration. (No call-down to driver.) SIOCGIFFLAGS SIOCGIFMETRIC SIOCGIFMTU SIOCGIFPHYS Get interface flags, metric, MTU, medium selection. (No call-down to driver.) SIOCSIFFLAGS Change interface flags. Caller must have appropriate privilege. If a change to the IFF_UP flag is requested, if_up() or if_down() is called as appropriate. Flags listed in IFF_CANTCHANGE are masked off, and the driver if_ioctl() routine is called to perform any setup requested. SIOCSIFMETRIC SIOCSIFPHYS Change interface metric or medium. Caller must have appropriate privilege. SIOCSIFMTU Change interface MTU. Caller must have appropriate privilege. MTU values less than 72 or greater than 65535 are considered invalid. The driver if_ioctl() routine is called to implement the change; it is respon- sible for any additional sanity checking and for actually modifying the MTU in the inter- face structure. SIOCADDMULTI SIOCDELMULTI Add or delete permanent multicast group mem- berships on the interface. Caller must have appropriate privilege. The if_addmulti() or if_delmulti() function is called to perform the operation; qq.v. SIOCSIFDSTADDR SIOCSIFADDR SIOCSIFBRDADDR SIOCSIFNETMASK The socket's protocol control routine is called to implement the requested action. if_down(), ifioctl(), ifpromisc(), and if_up() must be called inside a critical section. Interface Address Functions Several functions exist to look up an interface address structure given an address. ifa_ifwithaddr() returns an interface address with either a local address or a broadcast address precisely matching the parameter addr. ifa_ifwithdstaddr() returns an interface address for a point-to- point interface whose remote (``destination'') address is addr. ifa_ifwithnet() returns the most specific interface address which matches the specified address, addr, subject to its configured netmask, or a point-to-point interface address whose remote address is addr if one is found. ifaof_ifpforaddr() returns the most specific address configured on inter- face ifp which matches address addr, subject to its configured netmask. If the interface is point-to-point, only an interface address whose remote address is precisely addr will be returned. All of these functions return a null pointer if no such address can be found. Interface Multicast Address Functions The if_addmulti(), if_delmulti(), and ifmaof_ifpforaddr() functions pro- vide support for requesting and relinquishing multicast group member- ships, and for querying an interface's membership list, respectively. The if_addmulti() function takes a pointer to an interface, ifp, and a generic address, sa. It also takes a pointer to a struct ifmultiaddr * which is filled in on successful return with the address of the group membership control block. The if_addmulti() function performs the fol- lowing four-step process: 1. Call the interface's if_resolvemulti() entry point to deter- mine the link-layer address, if any, corresponding to this membership request, and also to give the link layer an oppor- tunity to veto this membership request should it so desire. 2. Check the interface's group membership list for a pre-existing membership for this group. If one is not found, allocate a new one; if one is, increment its reference count. 3. If the if_resolvemulti() routine returned a link-layer address corresponding to the group, repeat the previous step for that address as well. 4. If the interface's multicast address filter needs to be changed because a new membership was added, call the inter- face's if_ioctl() routine (with a cmd argument of SIOCADDMULTI) to request that it do so. The if_delmulti() function, given an interface ifp and an address, sa, reverses this process. Both functions return zero on success, or a stan- dard error number on failure. The ifmaof_ifpforaddr() function examines the membership list of inter- face ifp for an address matching addr, and returns a pointer to that struct ifmultiaddr if one is found, else it returns a null pointer.


ioctl(2), link_addr(3), queue(3), sysctl(3), bpf(4), ifmib(4), lo(4), netintro(4), config(8), ppp(8), rtentry(9) Gary R. Wright and W. Richard Stevens, TCP/IP Illustrated, Vol. 2, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-63354-X.


This manual page was written by Garrett A. Wollman. DragonFly 5.3 June 20, 2018 DragonFly 5.3

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